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+- Mauryan Kings Bindusara

Bindusara was the second Mauryan emperor (Born c. 320 BC, ruled: 298 - c.272 BC) after Chandragupta MauryaChandragupta Maurya
Chandragupta Maurya , sometimes known simply as Chandragupta , was the founder of the Maurya Empire. Chandragupta succeeded in bringing together most of the Indian subcontinent. As a result, Chandragupta is considered the first unifier of India and its first genuine emperor...
. During his reign, the empire expanded southwards. He had two sons, Sumana and AshokaAshoka
Ashoka , popularly known as Ashoka the Great, was an Indian emperor of the Maurya Dynasty who ruled almost all of the Indian subcontinent from 269 BC to 232 BC. One of India's greatest emperors, Ashoka reigned over most of present-day India after a number of military conquests...
, who were the viceroys of Taxila and Ujjain. The Greeks Ancient Greece
Ancient Greece is the civilisation belonging to the period of Greek history lasting from the Greek Dark Ages ca. 1100 BC and the Dorian invasion, to 146 BC and the Roman conquest of Greece after the Battle of Corinth. It is generally considered to be the seminal culture which provided the...
called him Amitrochates or Allitrochades - the Greek transliteration for the Sanskrit
Sanskrit is a historical Indo-Aryan language, one of the liturgical languages of Hinduism and Buddhism, and one of the 22 official languages of India. It is also declared as a classical language by the government of India....
word 'Amitraghata' (Slayer of enemies). He was also called 'Ajathasetru' (Man having no enemies) in Sanskrit.

Life

The son of Chandragupta, by a woman named Durdhara, Bindusara inherited a large empire that consisted of what is now, Northern, Central and Eastern parts of India
India, officially the Republic of India , is a country in South Asia. It is the seventh-largest country by geographical area, the second-most populous country, and the most populous democracy in the world. Bounded by the Indian Ocean on the south, the Arabian Sea on the west, and the Bay of Bengal...
along with parts of Afghanistan
The Islamic Republic of Afghanistan is a landlocked country in south central Asia. It is variously described as being located within Central Asia, South Asia, or the Middle East...
and BaluchistanBalochistan (region)
Balochistan or Baluchistan is an arid region located in the Iranian Plateau in Southwest Asia and South Asia, between Pakistan, Iran, and Afghanistan. The area is named after the numerous Baloch tribes, an Iranian people, who moved into the area from the west around A.D. 1000...
. Bindusara extended this empire to the southern part of India, as far as what is now known as Karnataka
Karnataka is a state in the southern part of India. It was created on November 1, 1956, with the passing of the States Reorganisation Act...
. He brought sixteen states under the Mauryan Empire and thus conquered almost all of the Indian peninsula (he is said to have conquered the 'land between the two seas' - the peninsular region between the Bay of BengalBay of Bengal
The Bay of Bengal IPA:ˈbɒŋɡopoʃɑːˈgoɽ), the largest bay of the world, forms the northeastern part of the Indian Ocean. It resembles a triangle in shape, and is bordered by Bangladesh and the Indian state of West Bengal to the north , India and Sri Lanka to the west and Myanmar and the Andaman and...
and the Arabian SeaArabian Sea
The Arabian Sea is a region of the Indian Ocean bounded on the east by India, on the north by Pakistan and Iran, on the west by Arabian Peninsula, on the south, approximately, by a line between Cape Guardafui, the north-east point of Somalia, Socotra, Kanyakumari in India, and the western coast...
). Bindusara didn't conquer the friendly Dravidian kingdoms of the Cholas, Pandyas, and Cheras. Apart from these southern states, Kalinga (India)
Kalinga was an early kingdom in central-eastern India, which comprised most of the modern state of Odissa / Utkal, as well as some northern areas of the bordering state of Andhra Pradesh...
(the modern Orissa) was the only kingdom in India that didn't form the part of Bindusara's empire. It was later conquered by his son Ashoka
Ashoka , popularly known as Ashoka the Great, was an Indian emperor of the Maurya Dynasty who ruled almost all of the Indian subcontinent from 269 BC to 232 BC. One of India's greatest emperors, Ashoka reigned over most of present-day India after a number of military conquests...
, who served as the viceroy of Ujjaini during his father's reign.

Bindusara's life has not been documented as well as his father Chandragupta or his son Ashoka. The philosopher Chanakya
Chanakya was an adviser and a prime minister to the first Maurya Emperor Chandragupta , and was the chief architect of his rise to power. Kautilya and Vishnugupta, the names by which the ancient Indian political treatise called the Arthaśāstra identifies its author, are traditionally identified...
served as prime minister during his reign. During his rule, the citizens of Taxila
Taxila is an important archaeological site in the Punjab province of Pakistan.It dates back to the Ancient Indian period and contains the ruins of the Gandhāran city of Takshashila an important Vedic/Hindu and Buddhist centre of learning from the 6th century BCEto the 5th century CE...
revolted twice. The reason for the first revolt was the maladministrationMaladministration
Maladministration is a political term which describes the actions of a government body which can be seen as causing an injustice.The law in the United Kingdom says Ombudsman must investigate ‘maladministration’...
of Suseema, his eldest son. The reason for the second revolt is unknown, but it could not be suppressed by Bindusara due to his untimely death, but was later crushed by Ashoka.

Ambassadors from Seleucid Empire
The Seleucid Empire was a Hellenistic empire, i.e. a successor state of Alexander the Great's empire. The Seleucid Empire was centered in the near East and at the height of its power included central Anatolia, the Levant, Mesopotamia, Persia, today's Turkmenistan, Pamir and parts of Pakistan...
(such as Deimachus) and Egypt
Egypt , officially the Arab Republic of Egypt, is a country mainly in North Africa, with the Sinai Peninsula forming a land bridge in Western Asia...
visited his courts. He maintained good relations with the Hellenic World. Unlike his father Chandragupta (who was a Jain), he believed in the Ajivika
Ājīvika was an ancient philosophical and ascetic movement of the Indian subcontinent. The Ajivikas were contemporaries of the early Buddhists and historical Jains; the Ajivika movement may have preceded both of these groups. The Ajivikas may have been a more loosely organized group of wandering...
(a Hindu sect that preached equality for all people).

Bindusara died in 272 BC (some records say 268 BC) and was succeeded by his son Ashoka the Great. Bindusara is known as "The Son of a Father and the Father of a Son" because he was the son of a great father Chandragupta MauryaChandragupta Maurya
Chandragupta Maurya , sometimes known simply as Chandragupta , was the founder of the Maurya Empire. Chandragupta succeeded in bringing together most of the Indian subcontinent. As a result, Chandragupta is considered the first unifier of India and its first genuine emperor...
and father of a great son Ashoka
Ashoka , popularly known as Ashoka the Great, was an Indian emperor of the Maurya Dynasty who ruled almost all of the Indian subcontinent from 269 BC to 232 BC. One of India's greatest emperors, Ashoka reigned over most of present-day India after a number of military conquests...
, the Great.

Bindusara's Empire

Bindusara extended his empire further as far as south Mysore
Mysore is the second-largest city in the state of Karnataka, India. It is the headquarters of the Mysore district and the Mysore division and lies about southwest of Bangalore, the capital of Karnataka. The name Mysore is an anglicised version of Mahishūru, which means the abode of Mahisha...
. He conquered sixteen states and extended the empire from sea to sea. The empire included the whole of India
India, officially the Republic of India , is a country in South Asia. It is the seventh-largest country by geographical area, the second-most populous country, and the most populous democracy in the world. Bounded by the Indian Ocean on the south, the Arabian Sea on the west, and the Bay of Bengal...
except the region of Kalinga (India)
Kalinga was an early kingdom in central-eastern India, which comprised most of the modern state of Odissa / Utkal, as well as some northern areas of the bordering state of Andhra Pradesh...
(modern Orissa) and the Dravidian kingdoms of the south. The Dravidians kingdoms of the Cholas, Pandyas and Cheras were very friendly with the Mauryan empire and so the king felt no need to conquer them. However, Kalinga was not friendly with the Mauryans and so a war was fought between the people of Kalinga and Mauryans led by Bindusara's son Ashoka.

Early Tamil poetSangam literature
Sangam literature refers to a body of classical Tamil literature created between the years c. 600 BCE to 300 CE. This collection contains 2381 poems composed by 473 poets, some 102 of whom remain anonymous The period during which these poems were composed is commonly referred to as the Sangam...
s speak of Mauryan chariotChariot
The chariot is the earliest and simplest type of carriage, used in both peace and war as the chief vehicle of many ancient peoples. Chariots were built in Mesopotamia by the Mesopotamians as early as 3000 BC and in China during the 2nd millennium BC. The original chariot was a fast, light, open,...
s thundering across the land, their white pennants brilliant in the sunshine. At the time of Bindusara's death in 272 BC, practically the entire sub-continent had come under Mauryan suzerainty. One area alone remained hostile and unconquered, Kalinga, on the east coast (modern Orissa). This was left to Bindusara's son Ashok, who campaigned successfully against Kalinga. Bindusara campaigned in the Deccan, extending the Mauryan empire in the peninsula to as far as Mysore. He is said to have conquered 'the land between the two seas', presumably the Arabian sea and the Bay of Bengal.

Administration during Bindusara's Reign

Bindusara maintained good relations with Seleucus Nicator and the emperors regularly exchanged ambassadors and presents. He also maintained the friendly relations with the Hellenic West established by his father. Ambassadors from Syria and Egypt lived at Bindusara's court. He preferred the AjivikaAjivika
Ājīvika was an ancient philosophical and ascetic movement of the Indian subcontinent. The Ajivikas were contemporaries of the early Buddhists and historical Jains; the Ajivika movement may have preceded both of these groups. The Ajivikas may have been a more loosely organized group of wandering...
philosophy rather than Jainism
Jainism is an ancient dharmic religion from India that prescribes a path of non-violence for all forms of living beings in this world. Its philosophy and practice relies mainly on self-effort in progressing the soul on the spiritual ladder to divine consciousness...
.

Apparently he was a man of wide interest and taste, since tradition had it that he asked Antiochus I to send him some sweet wineWine
Wine is an alcoholic beverage typically made of fermented grape juice. The natural chemical balance of grapes is such that they can ferment without the addition of sugars, acids, enzymes or other nutrients. Wine is produced by fermenting crushed grapes using various types of yeast. Yeast consumes...
, dried figs
FIGS is an acronym for French, Italian, German, Spanish. These are usually the first four languages chosen to localize products into when a company enters the European market....
and a sophist

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